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1 edition of mechanics of gas transfer in oxidation lagoons found in the catalog.

mechanics of gas transfer in oxidation lagoons

Donald Bruce Mausshardt

mechanics of gas transfer in oxidation lagoons

  • 314 Want to read
  • 18 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Sewage disposal.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Donald Bruce Mausshardt.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination27 leaves, bound :
    Number of Pages27
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL23958931M

    This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired ( W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature. lagoon is to cover its surface with an air-tight seal. Covered lagoons are completely anaerobic since there is no way for aeration or photosynthesis to add oxygen to the treatment volume. Covered Anaerobic Lagoons are designed using both volumetric loading rate and hydraulic detention time. Figures 4 and 5 show design factors based on USDA-NRCS.   This paper proposes a performance based definition for oxidation inhibited graphite and a protocol to convert test results to index any graphite resistance to oxidation. Furthermore, the paper provides a methodology to determine temperature limits and/or service life . Electronic books: Additional Physical Format: Print version: Shtern, V. I︠A︡. (Vladimir I︠A︡kovlevich). Gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons. Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press; [distributed in the Western Hemisphere by Macmillan, New York] (DLC) (OCoLC) Material Type: Document, Internet resource: Document Type.


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mechanics of gas transfer in oxidation lagoons by Donald Bruce Mausshardt Download PDF EPUB FB2

The mechanics of gas transfer in oxidation lagoonsAuthor: Donald Bruce Mausshardt. Merv Fingas, in Oil Spill Science and Technology, Photo-oxidation. Photo-oxidation can change the composition of an oil. It occurs when the sun's action on an oil slick causes oxygen and carbons to combine and form new products that may be resins.

The resins may be somewhat soluble and dissolve into the water, or they may cause water-in-oil emulsions to form. to the oxidation ditch design to remove nutrients in conditions cycled or phased between the anoxic and aerobic states.

While the mechanics of operation differ by manufacturer, in general, the process consists of two separate aeration basins, the first anoxic and the second aerobic. Wastewater and return activated sludge (RAS) are introduced into.

An aerated lagoon is a treatment pond with mechanical aeration to introduce oxygen into the pond in order to promote the biological oxidation of the wastewater. Operators utilize oxygen and microbial action in lagoons to treat the pollutants in the wastewater. Lagoon depths range from 10 to 15 ft.

Therefore, although unaerated lagoons are typically ft deep, allowing large surface areas for natural transfer, aerated lagoons are usually ft deep in order to provide a longer, more difficult path for oxygen to escape unconsumed.

Aerated lagoons also operate with higher dissolved oxygen content. Facultative Lagoons. An aerated lagoon is a treatment pond that is provided with mechanical aeration that introduces oxygen into the pond in order to promote the biological oxidation of the wastewater. Operators utilize oxygen and microbial action in lagoons to treat the pollutants in the wastewater.

Lagoon depths range. and oxidation lagoons, also referred to as “oxidation ponds”, “anaerobic ponds” or “naturally aerated ponds” respectively.

However, to mechanics of gas transfer in oxidation lagoons book satisfactory treatment results oxidation lagoons require a large amount of land area. For example 10 – 15 m² per population equivalent (p.e.) are needed in regions of temperate climate.

Fundamentals of gas transfer Kinetics of aeration Factors of influence in oxygen transfer Oxygen transfer rate in the field and under standard conditions Other aeration coefficients Mechanical aeration systems Diffused air aeration systems Aeration tests Gravity aeration   Oxidation ponds, also known as waste stabilization ponds, provide greater advantages over mechanically based units.

First, ponds can be described as self-sufficient treatment units, because the efficacy of treatment is contingent upon the maintenance of the overall microbial communities of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa (Hosetti and Frost ), and the proper balance of organics.

The oxidation ditch (OD) is a sort of equipment used for a long-term aeration. It consists of a long channel of an elliptical or circular shape equipped with an aeration equipment called a rotor.

The following few diagrams and pictures would be he. Gas/Liquid Mass Transfer Parameters (ε G, k L a, a) for Non-Newtonian Two-Phase Flow in a Bubble Column A. Schumpe, K. Nguyen-tien, W.-D. Deckwer Pages This book is organized into 11 chapters that focus on both chemi- and bioenergized processes.

This book first discusses some of the fundamental aspects of the description of excited state behavior in condensed media. It then examines the field of gas-phase dioxetane chemiluminescence both by itself and in relation to solution-phase studies. Oxidation pond. Oxidation ponds, also called lagoons or stabilization ponds, are large, shallow ponds designed to treat wastewater through the interaction of sunlight, bacteria, and algae.

Algae grow using energy from the sun and carbon dioxide and inorganic compounds released by bacteria in water. During the process of photosynthesis, the algae release oxygen needed by aerobic bacteria. Role of fluid properties in gas transfer.

Environmental Science & Technology1 (1), DOI: /esa M. Zigler and Wendell Francis. Phillips. Thin-layer chromatographic method for estimation of chlorophenols. The oxygen transfer efficiency of oxidation ditches ranges from to Ib./Hp-hour (Baker Process, ).

The design criteria are affected by the influent wastewater parameters and the required effluent characteristics, including the decision or requirement to achieve nitrification, denitrification, and/or biological phosphorus removal.

Electronic library. Download books free. Finding books | B–OK. Download books for free. Find books. An aerated lagoon (or aerated pond) is a simple wastewater treatment system consisting of a pond with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation of wastewaters.

There are many other aerobic biological processes for treatment of wastewaters, for example activated sludge, trickling filters, rotating biological contactors and all have in common the use of oxygen (or.

A theory is presented by which three processes are shown to give rise to the observed peak in the metal removal rate: (1) the oxidation reaction, (2) the mass transfer process, which governs at °C, and (3) the diffusion resistance of the oxide layer, which governs at higher temperatures.

Thermal oxidation of silicon • Diffusivity of Si in SiO 2 much smaller than that of O 2 molecular O 2 diffusion (opposite to metal oxidation or anodic oxidation of Si, in which cations moves out to surface) gas SiO 2 Si 0 x o Depth (x) c g c surf c 0 c i F 1 F 2 F 3 F 1 – incident flux to surface; F 1 =h g (C g-C s) h g – mass transfer.

the pH in a well operating lagoon may be high because of activity in the lagoon, the influent to the system should be very close to the typical range. A high or low pH in the influent probably means septic conditions or a significant discharge from an industry. Either of these situations will most likely affect treatment processes.

Lagoon system. This chapter elucidates the technologies of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The presented biological wastewater treatment processes include: (1) bioremediation of wastewater that includes aerobic treatment (oxidation ponds, aeration lagoons, aerobic bioreactors, activated sludge, percolating or trickling filters, biological filters, rotating biological contactors.

Typically, anaerobic lagoons are used in series with aerobic or facultative lagoons, enhancing the operation of both types of lagoons as aerobic or facultative lagoons providing further treatment of the effluent. Initial treatment in an anaerobic lagoon often renders the waste more amenable to further treatment and reduces the oxygen demand.

AIChE | The Global Home of Chemical Engineers. Applied Mechanics Reviews ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems, Part B: Mechanical Engineering ASME Letters in Dynamic Systems and Control. The gas transfer coefficient is a function of the gas flow rate because the interface surface area (i.e.

the surface area of the air bubbles) increases as the gas flow rate increases. Experimental Methods. The reactors are 4 L containers (Figure). The DO probe should be placed to minimize the risk of air bubbles lodging on the membrane on the.

10 G Å = ß &. 5 ; k í æ Ú Ô æ o. ; (3) Liquid‐Liquid Dispersions in various systems Figure 9: Relation of drop sizes in agitated systems using a Local Power per unit mass2,8 The local power for an agitated system is defined as the power input into the fluid divided.

Matter, material substance that constitutes the observable universe and, together with energy, forms the basis of all objective phenomena. At the most fundamental level, matter is composed of elementary particles, known as quarks and leptons (the class of elementary particles that includes electrons).

The chemical reactions of gasification can progress to different extents depending on the gasification conditions (like temperature and pressure) and the feedstock used.

Combustion reactions take place in a gasification process, but, in comparison with conventional combustion which uses a stoichiometric excess of oxidant, gasification typically uses one-fifth to one-third of the theoretical.

For many years, the process of the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles have been described through the LaMer burst nucleation and following Ostwald ripening to describe the change in the particles size. This process was originally modeled by Reiss with an accepted model being developed by Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner, LSW theory.

This was considered to be the only theory of nucleation until. The number of over-all gas transfer units NO G is an integrated value of the change i n composition per unit driving force, and therefore represents the difficulty o f the separation. Water-gas-shift and methanation reactions CO H2 WGS reactor H2 CO2 CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 ∆Hr = kJ/mol °C, 1 atm Water gas shift H2O Source: F.

Vogel, Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland; & Cat Comm 4 (). CO H2 Methanation reactor CO + H2 → CH4 + CO2 + H2O ∆Hr = kJ/mol °C, atm Ni. Oxidation Pond and Aerated Lagoon are popular sewage treatment method because of their low construction and operation cost.

In addition, ponds are simple plants to operate and maintain. However, the ponds require large land areas. Oxidation ponds may comprise one. Provide enough mixing to allow solids to become suspended for quicker digestion and oxidation by the aerobic bacteria.

If this does not take place, solids will build up on the bottom, eventually requiring the very expensive process of sludge removal from the lagoon bottom.

Over the years the methods of aerating these lagoons has changed little. Gas exchange is the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide move between the bloodstream and the lungs. This is the primary function of the respiratory system and is essential for ensuring a constant supply of oxygen to tissues.

This article will discuss the principles of gas exchange, factors affecting the rate of exchange and relevant clinical conditions. In a two-stage lagoon (Figure 2), primary treatment takes place in the first stage or cell. The effluent is then transferred to the secondary cell where it undergoes further treatment through bacterial action and oxidation.

Odors are controlled better, and the possibility of disease transmission is reduced, when using a two-stage lagoon. Mechanistic Models for Gas Transfer The Overall Gas Transfer Rate Coefficient KL Evaluating kL kG KL and a: Effects of Hydrodynamic and Other Operating Conditions Summary 6 Gas Transfer: Reactor Design and Analysis Introduction Case I: Gas Transfer in Systems with a Well-Mixed Liquid Phase Lagoon – Chemical Addition • Calcium – Lime •• AluminumAluminum – Alum, Poly Aluminum Chloride Poly Aluminum Chloride • Iron – Ferric Chlorine • Pi kl Li Pickle Liquor - F lf Ferrous sulfate.

Zhou, H., Qu, J. and Cherkaoui, M. [] “ Stress-oxidation interaction in selective oxidation of Cr-Fe alloys,” Mechanics of Materials 42(1), 63– Crossref, ISI, Google Scholar Zohdi, T. [ ] “ Modeling and simulation of a class of coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical processes in multiphase solids,” Computer Methods in.

Heat Transfer by Free Convection. This example describes an array of heating tubes submerged in a vessel with fluid flow entering at the bottom. This is a multiphysics model because it involves fluid dynamics coupled with heat transfer.

15 April | Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol.No. 9 Effect of atmosphere composition on the oxidation behavior of MCrAlY coatings 29 October | Materials and Corrosion, Vol. 62, No. Facultative lagoons are often converted to partially mixed aerobic lagoons to improve treatment.

These type of lagoons require energy for mixing/aeration, but the energy requirement is normally less than other mechanical systems. Lagoons are well suited for small cities and towns because they can cost less to construct, operate, and maintain.Presents the literature review of wastewater treatment.

This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM).Bacterial oxidation of BOD causes a decrease in lagoon pH due to CO2 release.

Algal growth in lagoons has the opposite effect on lagoon pH, raising the pH due to algal use for growth of inorganic carbon (CO2 and HCO Algal growth reduces the lagoon alkalinity which may cause the pH to increase if the lagoon alkalinity (pH buffer capacity) is.